The Supreme Court’s unanimous opinion, authored by Chief Justice Earl Warren in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), is available online at http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html.
A brief history and summary of the decision is posted on the United States Courts website, http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/get-involved/federal-court-activities/brown-board-education-re-enactment/history.aspx.
2. The 1957 Civil Rights Act established a U.S. Commission on Civil Rights to investigate discrimination in voting rights, authorized the U.S. Attorney General to prosecute violations, and prohibited exclusion from federal juries based on race. The 1960 act improved federal judges’ authority to protect voting rights. The 1964 act required voting eligibility requirements (which it did not eliminate) to be applied to all citizens equally, prohibited segregation in public but privately owned accommodations (motels, restaurants, etc.) as well as in public facilities, authorized the Attorney General to file school desegregation suits, strengthened the U.S. Civil Rights Commission, and prohibited discrimination by state and local agencies receiving federal funds. The 1965 act (the Voting Rights Act) established federal supervision of election procedures, especially in states that had historically discriminated against African Americans’ right to vote; this supervision was recently weakened by the Supreme Court. The 1968 act (the Fair Housing Act) prohibited racial discrimination in the sale and rental of most housing.
3. The most comprehensive account of the Brown case, and the LDF’s long pursuit of desegregation that culminated in Brown , is Richard Kluger’s 1975 book Simple Justice (New York: Random House). In the 1975 two-volume edition, the account of the LDF’s press conference following the Supreme Court’s ruling is found on p. 902, based on the following newspaper articles: New York Times, “N.A.A.C.P. Sets Advanced Goals,” May 18, 1954; Luther A. Huston, “1896 Ruling Upset,” New York Times, May 18, 1954.
4. The 29 percent figure is for 2010. For data on 2010, see Genevieve Siegel-Hawley and Erica Frankenberg, Southern Slippage. Growing School Segregation in the Most Desegregated Region of the Country, The Civil Rights Project, September 2012, revised October 18, 2012, Table 5, http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/integration-and-diversity/mlk-national/southern-slippage-growing-school-segregation-in-the-most-desegregated-region-of-the-country/hawley-MLK-South-2012.pdf. For data on 1980, see Gary Orfield, Public School Desegregation in the United States, 1968-1980, Joint Center for Political Studies, Washington, D.C., 1983, Table 7. These data and their implications, including a discussion of how racial isolation declined from the Brown decision until 1980, and has increased since then, are discussed in more detail in Richard Rothstein, For Public Schools, Segregation Now, Segregation Since: The Unfinished March, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C., 2013, http://s2.epi.org/files/2013/Unfinished-March-School-Segregation.pdf.
5. The earliest available data are for the 1970–1971 school year from Gary Orfield, Public School Desegregation in the United States, 1968-1980, 1983, Table 7.
6. See Southern Slippage, Figure 3.
7. For a discussion of trends in black student achievement, and the achievement gap, see Richard Rothstein, Fact-Challenged Policy, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C., 2011, http://www.epi.org/files/page/-/EPI_PolicyMemorandum_182.pdf. The report includes detailed referenced tables on NAEP trends, available at http://www.epi.org/page/-/LTT and Main NAEP Tables.xls.
8. A full description of the unequal status of Clarendon County schools, litigated in Brown v. Board of Education , can be found in Simple Justice, pp. 9, 417–418. Kluger also describes conditions in the other districts whose cases were combined with Clarendon County in the Brown decision.
9. For a summary of evidence on the relationship of parental literacy and home intellectual environment to child outcomes, see Richard Rothstein, Class and Schools, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C., 2004, pp. 19–32, http://www.epi.org/publication/books_class_and_schools/. For estimates of the cost of implementing high-quality early childhood education and nurse-family partnership programs, see Tamara Wilder, Whitney Allgood, and Richard Rothstein, Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Low-Income Children: A 19-Year Life Cycle Approach, The Campaign for Educational Equity, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 2008, Tables 4–9, http://www.epi.org/files/page/-/pdf/wilder_allgood_rothstein-narrowing_the_achievement_gap.pdf
10. David Grissmer, Sophie M. Aiyer, William M. Murrah, Kevin J. Grimm, and Joel S. Steele, “Fine Motor Skills and Early Comprehension of the World: Two New School Readiness Indicators,” Developmental Psychology 46 (5) (2010): 1008–1017; Class and Schools, esp. pp. 56–59; Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Low Income Children: A 19-Year Life Cycle Approach, Table 11.
11. For a summary of research and debate on class size reduction for disadvantaged students in the early grades, see Lawrence Mishel and Richard Rothstein, eds. (Alan B. Krueger, Eric A. Hanushek, and Jennifer King Rice, contributors), The Class Size Debate, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C., 2002, http://www.epi.org/publication/books_classsizedebate/. For cost estimates on higher teacher quality and reduced class size for disadvantaged students, see Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Low Income Children: A 19-Year Life Cycle Approach, Tables 12–13.
12. Richard Rothstein, He’s Looked at Life from Both Sides Now – or Has He? Arne Duncan Claims the High Ground, but School Clinics Still Face Needless Obstacles, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C., February 26, 2012, http://www.epi.org/publication/education-arne-duncan-school-health-clinics/; Class and Schools, esp. pp. 37-45; Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Low-Income Children: A 19-Year Life Cycle Approach, Table 10.
13. Simple Justice, esp. pp. 99–402, 415–416, 557–558, 680, 689, 702
14. Class and Schools, esp. endnotes 309, 310. For two decades, the Century Foundation’s Richard Kahlenberg has documented the extent to which the concentration of lower-class students in classrooms and schools depresses their achievement. For a recent summary and introduction to other sources, see Richard D. Kahlenberg, Why Economic School Segregation Matters, Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, New York University, March 10, 2014, http://furmancenter.org/research/iri/kahlenberg. For a discussion of why racial segregation exacerbates economic segregation, see Richard Rothstein, Race Remains the American Dilemma, Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, New York University, March 10, 2014, http://furmancenter.org/research/iri/Rothstein.
15. Stephanie DeLuca, “HUD Voucher Program Fails to Relocate Families from Poor Neighborhoods,” America’s Wire. Maynard Media Center on Structural Inequity, undated, http://americaswire.org/drupal7/?q=content/hud-voucher-program-fails-relocate-families-poor-neighborhoods-0
16. Susan J. Popkin, Diane K. Levy, Laura E. Harris, Jennifer Comey, Mary K. Cunningham, and Larry F. Buron, “The HOPE VI Program: What About the Residents?” Housing Policy Debate 15 (2) (2004), 385–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2004.9521506
17. The Department of Housing and Urban Development provides a summary of the rule and rule text at its “Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing Proposed Rule” web page, http://www.huduser.org/portal/affht_pt.html. Comments on the proposed rule by the Poverty and Race Research Action Council (PRRAC), and other civil rights groups are available on PRRAC’s website at http://www.prrac.org/full_text.php?item_id=14252&newsletter_id=0&header=Current%20Projects. Forty-five years ago, HUD proposed similar action, but it was cancelled by President Nixon. For an account, see Richard Rothstein and Mark Santow, A Different Kind of Choice, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C., 2012, http://www.epi.org/files/2012/Different_Kind_Of_Choice.pdf.
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